Social Consensus, Nakamoto Consensus
3.1 Example | Double spend attempt
A miner tries to mine a double spend transaction in a block against the rest of the network. Unless the miner is able to accumulate more proof of work than the entirety of the network combined, the honest chain will grow quicker than the dishonest way, forcing the miner to continue wasting resources, or to join the longest chain and act honestly, indirectly punishing the dishonest miner for going against Nakamoto Consensus.
3.2 Example | Orphan blocks
Sometimes multiple miners discover a block so close to each other they are each able to propagate their block to a part of the network. Each node will use the block they received first as the valid one and begin building upon that one, causing a temporary fork. Once a second block is found the miners will see that longer chain and recognize it as being the one with the most Proof of Work (PoW) resulting in any miners working on the alternative fork to move over and continue building on the longest chain.